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We want to add the following key/value pairs: {‘a’: 1, ‘b’: 2′, ‘z’: 26, ‘y’: 25, ‘c’: 5, ‘x’: 24}. This is what happens:

A dictionary structure is allocated with internal table size of 8.

This is what we have so far:

6 slots on 8 are used now so we are over 2/3 of the array’s capacity. dictresize() is called to allocate a larger array. This function also takes care of copying the old table entries to the new table.

dictresize() is called with minused = 24 in our case which is 4 * ma_used. 2 * ma_used is used when the number of used slots is very large (greater than 50000). Why 4 times the number of used slots? It reduces the number of resize steps and it increases sparseness.

The new table size needs to be greater than 24 and it is calculated by shifting the current size 1 bit left until it is greater than 24. It ends up being 32 e.g. 8 -> 16 -> 32.

This is what happens with our table during resizing: a new table of size 32 is allocated. Old table entries are inserted into the new table using the new mask value which is 31. We end up with the following:

PyDict_DelItem() is called to remove an entry. The hash for this key is calculated and the lookup function is called to return the entry. The slot is now a dummy slot.

We want to remove the key ‘c’ from our dictionary. We end up with the following array:

Note that the delete item operation doesn’t trigger an array resize if the number of used slots is much less that the total number of slots. However, when a key/value pair is added, the need for resize is based on the number of used slots + dummy slots so it can shrink the array too.

That’s it for now. I hope you enjoyed the article. Please write a comment if you have any feedback. If you need help with a project written in Python or with building a new web service, I am available as a freelancer: LinkedIn profile . Follow me on Twitter @laurentluce.

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by Laurent Luce

31 Comments to "Python dictionary implementation"


[…] This post was mentioned on Twitter by HN Firehose, newsery1. newsery1 said: Python's dictionary implementation – – [Hacker News FH] […]

Link | February 9th, 2011 at 4:56 pm

Hi, thank you very much for comprehensive coverage of the topic. I really enjoy it. But you left me with one minor question. Does python dict resized when we remove an item? In fact my experience with large JSON objects tells me that it never shrinks.

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| February 9th, 2011 at 7:04 pm

@Valentin: There is no resize when an item is removed but if you look at dictresize, you will see that if the new size is equal to 8 then it means it is a large table getting reduced to an array of size 8. The need for resize is only checked when an element is added (as far as I know). Shrinkage happens when there are too many unused slots.

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Eastern Hexagons — most of the room is squared up normally and the caller is calling his normal choreography to them, at speed. A dancer led group squares up in a hexagon in the back of the hall and attempts to dance the same choreography as the front squares. Depending on the skill of the group and the choreography, this can be quite a challenge.

Bi-gons — if hexagon dancing is adding two extra couples to a normal square, bi-gon dancing is taking away two couples from a normal square. You are still dancing normal, symmetric 8-person MWSD, but with only 4 of you! Motion around the flagpole center is twice the normal speed and twice as far. All this is documented by Sue Curtis BRUNO PREMI Botin N7200X Camoscio Verde Green IXMBvtjZtU

Clark asks if there is some way to know when to change 180 degree turns into 120 degree turns. In general, how do you know where to go in Hex dancing, and if every call "works"?

What you would like to be able to claim is the following:

I say that we can as least claim this:

If you can say that all calls in square dancing have a well-defined traffic pattern, then you can say that all calls have a well-defined way to dance them in Hexagons. So, the question is: do any calls have undefined traffic patterns?

I seem to remember learning one or two calls with pull-bys that could be either with the inside or outside hand. The rule was "don't hurt anybody." Cross and Turn, maybe? Or anything and Cross?

The ambiguity only makes a difference of course if it happens in the center of the square, and gives people a choice as to which direction around the center of the square they travel. So, doing an Ends Cross Cast Back in the east coast or west coast style doesn't matter.

The claim above (every 4-couple motion has a well-defined 6-couple motion) can be backed up solidly by giving the mapping from one motion to the other. This is done most naturally in polar coordinates. If a dancer in a 4-couple square moves from

where a0 and a1 are the polar angles around the center of the square, r0 and r1 are the distances from the center of the square, and d0 and d1 are the dancer's starting and final facing directions, then the equivalent 6-couple dancer's motion would change by the following:

In English:

All distances from the center map directly.

As you rotate around the center of the square, you adjust your facing direction by 1/3 the angle in the opposite direction.

It is important to not take the angles mod 360! If a1 > a0, this implies counter-clockwise motion, and a1 < a0 implies clockwise motion.

This is just a mathematical mapping, and doesn't address the fact that the square will breath, and tend to line up in a Y or triangle. This will map a 2x4 to curved waves (or columns), between a Y and a triangle. But these are all equivalent — the important thing is that this mapping gives you an "ideal" spot to stand on and direction to face, which provide for a well-defined Hexagon interpretation of any 4-couple motion.




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